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    Optical Transceiver

    Introduction


    Fiber optical communication has become the dominant way to increase the speed of network communications due to the constant extension and enhancement of transmission capacity for communication network structure. As the proportion of client optical fiber increases, the development of the optical transceiver module market has improved rapidly. Developments of metropolitan/connecting networks and optical fiber LANs have become the moving force for market growth of optical active components. Presently, optical transceiver modules are developed toward small assembly, low costs, and low power consumption. Optical fiber components usually need a stable environment to perform necessary component features. Therefore, optical fiber components need higher requirements during the assembly process. Requirements for optical transceiver modules are roughly as follows:

     

    • Isolation from externals
    • Stable temperature control
    • Good working characteristics
    • Sufficient mechanical strength
     
    The Fiber Optical Transceiver (FOT) consists of the optical transmitter and optical receiver at both ends of optical fiber communication as the component of the optical fiber. The optical transmitter converts electric signals to optical signals to transmit while the optical receiver converts received optical signals to electric signals. Therefore, FOT has capabilities of both transmitting and receiving due to assembling the optical transmitter and optical receiver onto the same module. Therefore, optical transceiver module includes the illuminant for communication and light detector. The transmitting module transmits electric signals from the client to the optical transmitter end, which then converts electric signals to optical signals to generate illuminants with signals to get into the optical fiber network. The receiving module generates electric signals to the client through the illuminant. In the general optical transceiver, there are LED and LD as illuminants while PIN Diode and APD are the receiving part.
     
    Currently the laser technology applied on FOT could be classified into 2 categories by the capability of laser transmission, one is DFB, Distribution Feedback Laser diode, the other one is VCSEL, and Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting laser diode is the main stream. Based on the infrastructure conditions of optical transmission industry, the demands of bandwidth enhancement of transceiver is getting higher, besides 1G, 2.5G and 10G in the standard specification, the higher speed such as 25G, 40G, 100G and 200G, even 400G is now be developed in progress. While technically the technology trend of integrating Chip-on-board and Si-photonics becoming possible, the shorten process, higher quality and yield rate will be practical in the real application, including IoT, Data Center and 5G communication will be brought into our real world.
     
    Application


    Receive End of the Optical Transceiver

    There are 2 main types of Fiber Optic Detectors :
    1.PIN : Positive-Intrinsic-Negative
    2.APD : Avalanche Photo Detector
     

     

    Transmitter End of the Optical Transceiver
    Laser comparison is below as:

     

    Architecture