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    Ethernet Switch

     Introduction

     

    The Ethernet is the most commonly used network architecture, and most well known used by most users. The data rate was originally 10 Mbps, it is now currently working up to 100 Mbps, and 1000 Mbps data rate is common to use from local area network (LAN) to metropolitan area network (MAN) infrastructures. In the Ethernet network, in order to share and transmit data, the sharing hub is becoming one of the most important equipments as a node of network connections, due to the increasing demanding of data rate and efficiency, hubs is not able to afford anymore, the switches with more efficient performance is becoming popular in the market.
     
    Unlike a hub, a switch checks every received data packet, and processes each packet appropriately. In a physical network environment, a switch has two major functions. The first is to divide the existing network into several subnets, so any expansion subnets are all reside in valid distances, and then more network nodes could be supported. The second function is to isolate traffics to prevent any collisions and crowded conditions in networks.
     
    There are two switching techniques used in a switch: a straightforward “cutting through” method, and a “store and forward” method to verify and control packets passing through the switch. “Cutting through” only checks the header of the packets, then delivers the packets to the destination address indicated in the header of the packets. “Store and forward” receives the entire packet and verifies its correctness before sending the packets toward the destination path.

     

     Standard

     

    802.1-High Level Interface
    802.2-LLC(Logical Link Control)
    802.3-CSMA/CD
    802.4-Token BUS
    802.5-Token Ring
    802.6-DQDB (Distributed Queue Dual Bus) 802.7-Broadband Technical Advisory Group
    802.8-Fiber Optic Technical Advisory Group
    802.9-Integrated Voice and Data LAN working Group
    802.10-LAN Security working Group
    802.11-Wireless LAN
    802.12-100VG-AnyLAN
    802.13-CATV

     

     

     Application

     

    The switches used in metropolitan network could be classified as Core Network, Aggregation Network and Access Network. The Core Network switches are used to deliver the data onto back-bond networks, no any changes will be applied on the data is transmitted. The Aggregation Network switch receives the data from Core network and correctly transmit them to the route which Access Network is positioned, or uploads the data from Access Network onto Core network. Access Network is applied for processing of the access events from user end.
     
    LAN switches could be classified as Enterprise switch and SOHO switch (Small Office / Home office ). It also could be classified as layer-3 switch, managed layer-2 switch and regular switches, majorly depends on what the services of quality, flow, strategies and virtual network management will be applied. Alternatively worth to mentioned, due to wireless technology is getting mature in recent years, there are already have switches equipped with wireless access capability in the market.
     
    The rising of cloud computing and extended data centers bring the progress of the Ethernet network speed. Under the stimulation of higher network performance demanding, servers equipped with 10G ports and the branch of 40G data center structures both achieving huge growth. With the continuous growing of huge data and the virtual machine amounts, the work loads of cloud computing are getting heavy, a 100G main branch of data center structure could be expected some day in the future.
     
    When 100G connection was supported by silicon technology, Ethernet connections lies in the rack need a solution better than 40G, said 25G. 100G is the same as 40G (CAUI-4, 100GBASE-CR4, 100GBASE-SR4), both making connections through 4 channels, now we have even higher transmitting rate, said 25G, for each channels, the connection between server, storage and rack top switches could be implemented by multiple 25G ports.
     
     
     Architecture